PORTUGUESE CHRONOLOGY, 1900-2000


1900 - Deputy Afonso Costa elected. Proposes the elimination of the monarchy on behalf of a repulic.
1900 - Eça de Queiroz, one of the greatest Portuguese authors of the 19th Century, dies in Paris at age 55.
1903 - Edward VII (England) and Alfonso XIII (Spain) visit Portugal.
1904 - Visit of King Carlos and Queen Maria Amélia to the Azores.
1906 -Ngugunhane, the African king from most of today's Mozambique who opposed the Portuguese dominance of his land, dies in exile in the Azores.
1906 - João Franco's dictatorship, with royal support, eliminates political parties.
1906 - British ultimatum threatening Portugal over African territories equally claimed by both nations.
1907 - Students and faculty at Coimbra University go on protest strike. Rest of the country soon follows.
1908 - King Carlos and son Luiz assassinated in Lisbon's Terreiro do Paço. The throne is assumed by king's other son, Manuel II.
1910 - 5th of October Revolution implants a new republic. Manuel II abdicates ending 770 years of Portuguese monarchs. Azoreans, Teófilo Braga and Manuel Arriaga, eventually become first and second presidents of the new republic.
1911 - First Portuguese Republican constitution created. Amongst its primary provisions was the separation of Church and State.
1915 - General Pimenta de Castro formed new government. It lasted 4 months until Afonso Costa took over.
1915 - Holy Sacrament Feast, the largest Portuguese religious feast in the United States, is born in New Bedford, Massachusetts, thanks to the efforts of three Madeiran immigrants.
1916 - Portugal enters World War I. Over 2,000 Portuguese die in the conflict.
1917 - (May 13th) Three shepherd children, Francisco, Jacinta, and Lúcia claim that the Virgin Mary appeared to them at Fátima.
1917 - Sidónio Pais leads a military coup in opposition to Portugal's participation in the war.
1918 - (December 14) Sidónio Pais assassinated. Democracy returns.
1919 - Salazar and three colleagues suspended from teaching for insinuating Monarchist ideas to their students.
1922 - Gago Coutinho and Sacadura Cabral complete the first trans-oceanic air trip between Lisbon and Brazil. Trip took three months.
1925 - First Portuguese radio broadcasts emitted in Lisbon.
1926 - António José de Almeida only president to complete his term between 1918 and 1926.
1927 - Dr. António Egas Moniz performs the world's first human cerebral angiography.
1928 - General Gomes da Costa leads another coup and implants a military dictatorship.
1928 - General António Oscar Carmona is installed as presidente and choses António Oliveira Salazar, an economics professor, as Finance Minister.
1930 - Founding of Salazar's National Union Party.
1931 - Birth of Manuel Luiz da Ponte Rezendes (Manuel L. Ponte). Click here to meet Manuel L. Ponte
1932 - King Manuel II dies in England. His body brought back to Portugal for burial.
1933 - Consolidation of Salazar in the government after five years of power building. Introduction of Ëstado Novo" constitution.
1935 - Fernando Pessoa, possibly the greatest Portuguese poet of the century, dies in Lisbon at age 47.
1935 - Açoriano Oriental, the oldest Portuguese-language newspaper in the world, celebrates 100 years.
1936 - Birth of green-shirted Mocidade Portuguesa and Legião Portuguese, the first a movement incorporating youths whose primary duty was their obedience to Salazar, the second a vountary type of Home Guard.
1937 - Failed attempt on Salazar's life.
1938 - Salazar recognizes the Franco-inspired Spanish government as the legitimate Spanish government.
1939 - Signing of the Iberian Pact with Franco's government.
1940 - Portuguese World Exposition is held in Lisbon. Accord (Concordata) signed with the Vatican renewing considerable ties with the Catholic Church.
1940 - Salazar government denounces Maria Helena Vieira da Silva, one of Portugal's greatest painters, and denies her citizenship.
1943 - Allies allowed in the Azores (Terceira Island Air Base)
1945 - Democratic Unity Movement created.
1945 - American air base at Santa Maria (Azores) gives birth to first Portuguese commercial airline, SATA.
1946 - (March 14) - Birth of TAP, which eventually became TAP (Air Portugal)
1948 - Americans installed at Lajes (Terceira), Azores, air base.
1949 - António Egas Moniz becomes the first Portuguese Nobel Prize winner (Medicine)
1949 - Portugal is one of the founders of NATO.
1950 - India proposes the return of Portuguese enclaves to that country/ Proposal rejected by Salazar.
1951 - Death of President Carmona. Another general, Craveiro Lopes, is the new president.
1955 - Portugal is admitted to the United Nations.
1957 - Submarine volcanic eruption in the Azores increases the size of Fayal (Faial) at its western end and the Capelinhos Islets.
1957 - Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh visit Portugal and are received by Salazar.
1957 - First television transmissions under the responsibility of the Portuguese Broadcasting Network (RDP).
1958 - General Humberto Delgado organizes political opposition against Salazar in presidential elections.
1959 - SS Santa Maria highjacked on the high seas by opposition political group. Colonial War starts in Angola. Portuguese enclaves in India are seized by Nehru's government. Failed military revolt at Beja.
1960 - Jaime Cortesão, one of Portugal's most distinguished historians and Salazar critic, dies.
1960 - Portuguese National Statistics Institute declares that populations of Angola and Mozambique are as follows: Angola, 4,830,449; Mozambrique, 6,603,553.
1962 - Students organize nationally against the government.
1964 - According to UNESCO figures Portugal's percentage of school-age people attending school represents only 47% of that sector of the population.
1965 - Professor Dr. Mário de Azevedo Gomes, one of Salazar's leading opposionists, and a former Agriculture Minsiter in previous administrations, dies.
1965 - General Humberto Delgado supposedly invited to a political meeting in Olivença is assassinated by the Portuguese Secret Police (PIDE).
1966 - Salazar Bridge (Now Ponte 25 de Abril) inaugurated crossing the Tejo River.
1966 - Portugal finishes 3rd in Soccer's World Cup. Portugal's Eusébio's is the tournament's top scorer.
1968 - Salazar has a stroke. Marcello Caetano is appointed new Prime Minister.
1969 - After considerable pressure from Azorean Americans, Portugal finally abolishes requirement that Americans must apply for visa from the Secret Police (PIDE) - in Portuguese - in order to visit the Azores.
1973 - Guiné-Bissau declares unilateral independence. Portuguese officers reunite to try to bring down the government.
1974 - 25th of April Revolt. "The Carnation Revolution". General António Spínola becomes new president. Followed by Costa Gomes.
1975 - Official liberation of African colonies. East Timor occupied by Indonesia against local popular will.
1975 - First democratic elections to new Constituent Assembly.
1976 - First parliamentary elections under the new democratic constitution.
1976 - General António Ramalho Eanes (as a political neutral) elected as President under the new constitution. On the same day (June 27) voters in the Azores and Madeira elected their respectives governments to their General Assemblies.
1979 - Agostinho Neto, first Angolan president, dies.
1979 - Francis M. Rogers publishes ATLANTIC ISLANDERS OF THE AZORES AND MADEIRAS.
1979 - Maria de Lourdes Pintasilgo becomes Portugal's Prime Minister. First woman ever to hold post in Iberian Peninsula.
1980 - Sá Carneiro becomes Prime Minister.
1980 - (December) Political leader, Sá Carneiro, dies in airplane "accident".
1980 - Carlos Lopes wins Olympic Marathon in Los Angeles. Rosa Mota finishes 3rd amongst women and wins bronze medal.
1981 - Pinto Balsemão nominated new Prime Minister.
1982 - New Portuguese Constitution with communist-oriented language removed from previous document.
1984 - Rosa Mota wins Women Olympics Marathon at Seoul, Korea.
1985 - Portugal's great runner, Carlos Lopes, sets World Marathon record at age 42.
1986 - Portugal is admitted to EEC.
1986 - Political leader, and former Salazar nemesis, Mário Soares, is elected president, succeeding democratically-elected General Ramalho Eanes.
1987 - F. C. Porto wins Soccer's Intercontinental Cup in Tokyo defeating South America's champion.
1987 - Rosa Mota is first Portuguese woman ever to win the classical Boston Marathon, the oldest in America. She repeats in 1988 and 1990.
1988 - Historic commercial and cultural area of Chiado (Lisbon) destroyed by arsonist's fire.
1991 - Lisbon - Porto super highway completed connecting the two largest Portuguese cities.
1992 - First commercial and private television broadcasts.
1995 - Pope John Paul II visits the Azores.
1996 - Jorge Sampaio defeats former Prime Minister Cavaco Silva in presidential election.
1997 - S. L. Benfica, a soccer team that for decades had a policy of not hiring non-Portuguese citizens as players, shows up for a game without a single Portuguese player on its squad.
1998 - Expo '98, the world's last World's Fair of the century held at Lisbon. Vasco da Gama Bridge is inaugurated to supplement the previously-built 25 of April Bridge.
1998 - José Saramago wins the Nobel Prize in Literature.
1999 - After the many efforts by Portugal on behalf of its former colony, East Timor, a referendum is held on that island overwhelmingly approving independence from Indonesia after 24 years.
1999 - C.D. Santa Clara is first Azorean soccer team ever to qualify for Portuguese Soccer League First Division.
1999 - Amália Rodrigues, the greatest exponent of the FADO ever produced in Portugal, dies.
1999 - Last Portuguese colony, Macau, is returned to China.

Manuel L. Ponte
St. Louis, Missouri